This manual provides guidance for planning and executing training on the 5.56–mm M16–series rifle (M16A1/A2/A3/A4) and M4 carbine.

It is a guide for commanders, leaders, and instructors to develop training programs, plans, and lessons that meet the objectives or intent of the United States Army rifle marksmanship program.

This manual is organized to lead the trainer through the material needed to conduct training during initial entry training and unit sustainment training.

Preliminary subjects include discussion on the weapons’ capabilities, mechanical training, and the fundamentals and principles of rifle marksmanship. Live–fire applications are scheduled after the soldier has demonstrated preliminary skills.

Detailed in this complete guide:

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND TRAINING STRATEGY

Section I. Training Overview

  • 1–1. Objectives
  • 1–2. Training Strategy
  • 1–3. Training Phase

Section II. Marksmanship Training Strategy1–4. Mission–Essential Tasks

  • 1–5. Training Assessment
  • 1–6. Basic Program Implementation
  • 1–7. Training the Trainer
  • 1–8. Duties of the Instructor–Trainer
  • 1–9. Trainer Certification Program
  • 1–10. Qualification Training
  • 1–11. Unit Live–Fire Exercises
  • 1–12. Commander’s Evaluation Guide

CHAPTER 2. CHARACTERISTICS, AMMUNITION, AND ACCESSORIES

  • 2–1. Characteristics
  • 2–2. Rail Adapter System
  • 2–3. Rail Grabbers and MILES Training Extender
  • 2–4. Backup Iron Sight
  • 2–5. M68, Close–Combat Optic
  • 2–6. AN/PAQ–4B/C Infrared Aiming Light
  • 2–7. AN/PEQ–2A Target Pointer/Illuminator/Aiming Light
  • 2–8. AN/PAS–13 (V2) Medium Thermal Weapon Sight and
  • AN/PAS–13 (V3) Heavy Thermal Weapon Sight
  • 2–9. AN/PVS–4 Night Vision Sight
  • 2–10. Borelight
  • 2–11. Ammunition Types and Characteristics

CHAPTER 3. TROUBLESHOOTING AND DESTRUCTION

  • 3–1. Stoppages
  • 3–2. Malfunctions
  • 3–3. Destruction Procedures

CHAPTER 4. PRELIMINARY RIFLE INSTRUCTION
(PHASE I of Basic Rifle Marksmanship)

Section I. Introduction to Basic Rifle Marksmanship and Mechanical Training

  • 4–1. Clearing
  • 4–2. Cycles of Functioning
  • 4–3. Modes of Fire
  • 4–4. Peer Coaching.
  • Section II. Marksmanship Fundamentals I
  • 4–5. The Four Fundamentals
  • 4–6. Firing Positions
  • 4–7. Training Devices and Exercises
  • Section III. Marksmanship Fundamentals II
  • 4–8. Weaponeer
  • 4–9. Engagement Skills Trainer 2000

CHAPTER 5. DOWNRANGE FEEDBACK
(PHASE II of Basic Rifle Marksmanship)

  • 5–1. Grouping Procedures
  • 5–2. Zeroing Procedures
  • 5–3. Known–Distance Range (With or Without LOMAH)
  • 5–4. Effects of Wind and Gravity
  • 5–5. Ballistics

CHAPTER 6. FIELD FIRE
(PHASE III of Basic Rifle Marksmanship)

Section I. Target Detection

  • 6–1. Locating Targets
  • 6–2. Marking Targets
  • 6–3. Range Determination
  • Section II. Field–Fire Training (Single Timed Targets
  • and Multiple Timed Targets)
  • 6–4. Conduct of Field–Fire Range
  • 6–5. Field–Fire Standards
  • Section III. Record Qualification
  • 6–6. Practice Record Fire I and II
  • 6–7. Practice Record Fire Standards
  • 6–8. Record Fire
  • 6–9. Alternate Qualification Courses

CHAPTER 7. ADVANCED RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP
(PHASE IV of Basic Rifle Marksmanship)

Section I. Advanced Firing Positions

  • 7–1. Alternate Prone Firing Position
  • 7–2. Kneeling Supported Firing Position
  • 7–3. Kneeling Unsupported Firing Position
  • 7–4. Standing Firing Position
  • 7–5. Modified Supported Firing Position
  • 7–6. Urban Operations Firing Positions
  • 7–7. Modified Automatic and Burst Fire Position

Section II. Combat Fire Techniques

  • 7–8. Rapid Semiautomatic Fire
  • 7–9. Automatic or Burst Fire
  • 7–10. Suppressive Fire
  • 7–11. Quick Fire

Section III. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Firing

  • 7–12. MOPP Equipment Fire Training
  • 7–13. NBC Dry–Fire and Live–Fire Exercises

Section IV. Night Fire Training

  • 7–14. Unassisted Night Fire Training
  • 7–15. Unassisted Night Fire Target Detection
  • 7–16. Training with Artificial Illumination
  • 7–17. Unassisted Night Dry–Fire and Live–Fire Exercises

Section V. Moving Target Engagement

  • 7–18. Moving Target Fundamentals
  • 7–19. Single–Lead Rule for Moving Targets
  • 7–20. Moving Target Live–Fire Exercise
  • 7–21. Moving Target Techniques

Section VI. Short–Range Marksmanship Training

  • 7–22. Conduct of Short–Range Marksmanship Training
  • 7–23. Fundamentals of Short–Range Marksmanship
  • 7–24. Preliminary Marksmanship Instruction
  • 7–25. Phase I, Reflexive Fire Training
  • 7–26. Phase II, Target Discrimination Training
  • 7–27. Phase III, Short–Range Marksmanship Qualification
  • 7–28. Phase IV, Shotgun and Automatic Firing Familiarization

Section VII. Squad Designated Marksman Training

  • 7–29. Mission of the Squad Designated Marksman
  • 7–30. Squad Designated Marksman Program
  • 7–31. Squad Designated Marksman Skills Progression

CHAPTER 8. ADVANCED OPTICS, LASERS, AND IRON SIGHTS
(PHASE V of Basic Rifle Marksmanship)

  • 8–1. Training Strategies and Qualification Standards
  • 8–2. Borelight
  • 8–3. Back–Up Iron Sight
  • 8–4. M68, Close–Combat Optic
  • 8–5. AN/PAS–13 (V2), (V3) Thermal Weapon Sight
  • 8–6. AN/PAQ–4B/C and AN/PEQ–2A, Infrared Aiming Lasers
  • 8–7. AN/PVS–4 Night Vision Device

APPENDICES

  • Appendix A. Training Aids and Devices
  • Appendix B. Scorecards
  • Appendix C. Laser Marksmanship Training System
  • Appendix D. Range Safety and Risk Management
  • Appendix E. Range Procedures and Range Operation
  • Checklist
  • Appendix F. Actions, Conditions, And Standards
  • Appendix G. 10–Meter Target Offsets And 25–Meter
  • Zero Offsets
  • Appendix H. Night Fighting
  • Glossary
  • References
  • Index